Cellular basis of Morphogenesis

  • ——— is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape

                 A. Morphogenesis                    b.  differential cell

          C.   Gastrulation                          d  .clevage

  • ———— also describes the development of unicellular life forms that do not have an embryonic stage in their life cycle.

                    a. Morphogenesis                         b. organogenesis

                    c.neurulation                                 d.teratogenesis

  • ———– the movement of cells from the blastula surface to the interior of the embryo
  •  Gastrulation                                 b.   oncogenensis
  • ———— the formation of organs.
  •  Organogenesis                             b.    cleavage
  • Morphogenesis is a major aspect of development in

      a.          plants and animals                       b.    isectes

  • There are —— types of morphogenesis
  •        Cellular and moleculer basis

                     B.          Unicellular bases

  • The changes in tissues cause the elongation, thinning, folding or separation of one tissue into distinct layers. This is often referred as
  • cadherins
  • cell sorting
  • The ability of cells to do this has been proposed to arise from differential cell adhesion ——-through his Differential Adhesion Hypothesis. ion hypotsis

a.Malcolm Steinber


  • According to ——-cells move to be near other cells of similar adhesive strength in order to maximize the bonding strength between cells and produce a more thermodynamically stable structure.
  •     DAH,
  •   EMT
  • ———–is a process by which epithelial cells lose their cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion, and gain migratory and invasive properties to become mesenchymal stem cells.

                     a.   epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)

                     b.Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs)

  • The molecules responsible for adhesion are called

                       a.Cell  adhesion molecules (CAMs).

                     b.    EMT

  • Which is the major class of molecules ———



  • are transmembrane proteins that mediate cell–cell adhesion in animals. By regulating contact formation and stability



  • ———– is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells

                 a.The extracellular matrix (ECM)

                  b.Cell contractility

  • ———–is involved in keeping tissues separated, providing structural support, providing a structure for cells to migrate on.

                a. extracellular matrix (ECM)grate on.


  • Firstly  When epidermal and mesodermal cells mixed then result epidermal——— and mesodermal —-

                a.Outside ,inside

                b.Inside, middle

                 c.Inside ,outside