Emotion and Motivation, Memory

1. The manufacture of adrenalin and noradrenalin is controlled by:

(a) Nervous system

 (b) Endocrine system

(c) Regulatory system

(d) Circulatory system

(e) Homeostasis

2. Repression is a common mode of resolving:

(a) Anxieties

(b) Tensions

(c) Conflicts

 (d) Motives

(e) None of these

3. The defense mechanisms are reactions to:

(a) Frustration

(b) Psychosexual behavior

(c) Aggression

(d) Goaldirected behavior

(e) None of these

4. Dynamic psychology is the psychology of:

(a) Motivation and Emotion

(b) Perception and Attention

(c) Learning and Memory

(d) Personality and Intelligence

(e) None of these

5. Both the terms “emotion” and “motivation” came from the same Latin root:

(a) Movement

(b) Move

(c) Moment

(d) “Movere”

(e) None of these

6. According to Lewin, tensions are emotional states which accompany:

(a) Needs

(b) Motives

(c) Goals

(d) Anxieties

(e) None of these

7. In avoidance-avoidance conflict, the indi­vidual is compelled to choose between:

(a) One positive and one negative alter­native

(b) Two negative alternatives

(c) Two positive alternatives

(d) Two negative alternatives and two posi­tive alternatives

(e) None of the above

8. A releaser is a highly specific stimulus that “triggers” or initiates:

(a) Response

(b) Social Behavior

(c) Gregariousness

(d) Species-specific behavior

(e) None of the above

9. Who assumed that human motives are arranged in a hierarchy of potency?

(a) Neal Miller (1959)

(b) Janis& Mann (1977)

(c) Jerome Singer (1962)

(d) A. H. Maslow (1970)

10. Corpus luteum and placenta of pregnant women secret the hormone:

(a) Estrogens

(b) Androgens

(c) Progesterone

(d) Adrenalin

11. According to Maslow, the self-actualizing tendency is:

(a) Instinct

(b) Imprinting

(c) Growth Motivation

(d) Deficiency motivation

12. Need for achievement can be measured by:

(a) Bennett’s scale

(b) Thurston’s scale

(c) TAT (Thematic Apperception Test)

(d) Semantic Differential scale

(e) None of the above

13. The desire to be with one’s own kind is termed as:

(a) Gregariousness

(b) Consummator behavior

(c) Imprinting

(d) Coolidge Effect

(e) None of the above

14. The type of conflict in which the goal of the individual has both positive and negative valence of approximate equal intensity is known as:

(a) Approach-avoidance conflicts

(b) Avoidance-avoidance confects

(c) Approach-approach conflict

(d) Multiple approach-avoidance conflicts

(e) None of the above

15. A young woman who turns herself into a religious worker has a strong:

(a) Approach gradient

(b) Social Motive

(c) Hyper vigilance

(d) Cephalization

(e) None of the above

16. The author of the hierarchical theory of motivation is:

(a) O. H. Mowrer

(b) McClelland

(c) J. W. Atkinson

(d) A. H. Maslow

(e) None of the above

17. When progress towards a goal is blocked and underlying tension is unresolved, we speak of:

(a) Frustration

(b) Critical Period

(c) Goal

(d) Restriction

(e) None of the above

18. Survival needs activate the organism to:

(a) Provide for physiological deficits

(b) Seek pleasure

(c) Avoid pain

(d) Gain status and recognition

(e) None of the above

19. Motives can be:

(a) Inferred from behavior

(b) Observed directly

(c) Used to explain behaviour

(d) Used to predict behaviour

(e) None of the above

22. Gregariousness is a/an:

(a) Social motive

(d) Biological motive

(c) Psychological motive

(d) Personal motive

(e) Internal motive

23. Individual’s life goal is:

(a) Social Motive

(b) Biological Motive

(c) Personal Motive

(d) An Instinct

(e) None of the above

24. When the motive has a biological or physiological basis, it is called a/an:

(a) Drive

(b) Incentive

(c) Imprinting

(d) Libido

(e) None of the above

25. Motives are never observed directly; but they are inferred from:

(a) Stimulus

(b) Conflict

(c) Tension

(d) Behaviour

(e) None of the above

26. The first stage of motivational cycle is:

(a) Drive state

(b) Instrumental behaviour

(c) Goal

(d) Frustration

(e) None of the above

27. In studying motivation, we attempt to answer:

(a) The broadest “why” question of behaviour

(b) The innate releasing mechanism

(c) Fixed-action pattern

(d) Displacement behaviour

(e) None of the above

28. The level of arousal is maintained by a structure in the brain stem called the:

(a) Pons

(b) Lymbic system

(c) Reticular activating system

(d) Cerebellum

(e) None of the above

29. Motivation can be understood as an interaction between:

(a) Arousal and Effort

(b) Vector and Valence

(c) Life space and Approach gradient

(d) Approach gradient and avoidance gradient

(e) None of the above

30. Many years ago, an American Psychologist did a study in Orissa in which he found that achievement needs are higher in the business caste. What is his name?

(a) Lewis

(b) Mowerer

(c) Maslow

(d) Mc Cleland

(e) Lorenz

31. A desire to achieve success and to meet some inner standard of excellence is a good definition of the:

(a) Achievement Need (n ACH):

(b) Fixed-Action pattern

(c) Displacement behaviour

(d) Encephalization

(e) None of the above

32. The “need for success”, “expectancy for success” and the “incentive value of success” are three motivational factors which determine the strength of:

(a) Social Motives

(b) Biological Motives

(c) Personal Motives

(d) Achievement Need

(e) None of the above

33. The need to achieve is jointly determined by:

(a) The expectation of success and the fear of failure

(b) The blocking of behaviour and fear of failure

(c) The drive stimulus and approach gradient

(d) The innate releasing mechanism and frustration

(e) None of the above

34. Social conformity can be described as a reverse:

(a) J—curve

(b) S—curve

(c) U—curve

(d) T—curve

(e) V—curve

35. F. H. All port (1935) described social conformity as the:

(a) S—curve hypothesis

(b) V—curve hypothesis

(c) U—curve hypothesis

(d) J—curve hypothesis

(e) None of the above

36. As motivation is closely related to effort, the emotion is related to:

(a) Arousal

(b) Instinct

(c) Displacement behaviour

(d) Conflict

(e) None of the above

37. Fritz Header, an Austrian psychologist, has given us a great deal of insight into:

(a) Imprinting

(b) Critical period

(c) Interpersonal relationships

(d) Coolidge Effect

(e) None of the above

38. A motive ethnologically means that

(a) Which moves

(b) Which distracts

(c) Which drives

(d) Which stimulates

(e) None of the above

39. Since motives activate the organism, they are also known as the:

(a) Outer dynamics

(b) Drive stimulus

(c) Inner dynamics

(d) Approach gradient

(e) Substitute behaviour

40. The second stage of the motivational cycle is called the:

(a) Goal

(b) Instrumental Behaviour

(c) Driving State

(d) Relief

(e) None of the above

41. Prolactin, a hormone from the anterior pituitary gland plays an important role in motivating:

(a) Maternal behaviour

(b) Imprinting

(c) Instinct

(d) Consummator behaviour

(e) None of the above

42. Behaviour of the mentally ill persons is greatly influenced by their:

(a) Conscious motives

(b) Innate Releasing Mechanism

(c) Unconscious motives

(d) Fixed-action pattern

(e) Displacement behaviour

43. Generally we infer needs and desires from:

(a) Covert behaviour

(b) Approach gradient

(c) Drive stimulus

(d) Overt Behaviour

(e) None of the above

44. Physiologists use the term homeostasis to describe the body’s tendency to maintain a balance or equilibrium among it’s:

(a) External physiological status and envi­ronment

(b) Internal physiological status and the en­vironment

(c) Displacement behaviour and cephalization

(d) Approach gradient and avoidance gra­dient

(e) None of the above

45. The relative strength of the drives of hunger, thirst and sex have been studied experi­mentally in the white rat by:

(a) Learning Method

(b) Obstruction Method

(c) Activity wheel

(d) The choice and Preference Method

(e) Questionnaire Method

46. The technique by which the strength of need is measured in terms of readiness with which a task is learned under different conditions of motivation is known as:

(a) Activity wheel

(b) Obstruction method

(c) The choice and Preference Method

(d) Learning Method

(e) None of the above

47. The technique for the measurement of needs by which the strength of a need is measured in terms of the magnitude of an obstacle or the number of times an obstacle of a given magnitude will be overcome in order to obtain a needed object is known as:

(a) Learning Method

(b) Obstruction method

(c) Activity wheel

(d) The choice and Preference Method

(e) None of the above

48. A tension within an organism which tends to organize the field of the organism with respect to certain incentives or goals and to incite activity directed towards their attain­ment is called:

(a) Need

(b) Imprinting

(c) Libido

(d) Valence

(e) Vector

49. An intraorganic activity or condition of tissue supplying stimulation for a particular type of behaviour is known as:

(a) Need

(b) Motive

(c) Drive

(d) Conflict

(e) Tension

50. Maslow viewed that motivated behaviour is:

(a) Need related

(b) A vector

(c) A valence

(d) An approach gradient

(e) Coolidge Effect

51. “A goal refers to some substance, objects or environmental condition capable of reducing or temporarily eliminating the complex of internal conditions which initiated action.” This definition of “goal” was given by:

(a) Janis& Mann (1977)

(b) Ruch (1970)

(c) Solomon and Corbit (1974)

(d) Neal Miller (1959)

(e) None of the above

52. Cannon called the concept of internal equilibrium and function as:

(a) Imprinting

(b) Instinct

(c) Homeostasis

(d) Substitute Behaviour

(e) None of the above

53. The expectations or goal that one sets to achieve in future keeping in view his past performance is called:

(a) Valence

(b) Vector

(c) Vigilance

(d) Level of Aspiration

(e) None of the above

54. “The need for achievement” was first defined largely on the basis of clinical studies done by:

(a) Murray (1938)

(b) Janis and Mann (1977)

(c) Solomon (1974)

(d) Corbit (1974)

(e) None of the above

55. The achievement motivation theory of Mc Clelland is explained in terms of:

(a) “Affective Arousal model of moti­vation”

(b) Action Specific energy

(c) Innate Releasing Mechanism

(d) Displacement Behaviour

(e) Opponent Process Theory

56. Intrinsic Motivational Theory was propoun­ded by:

(a) Mc Clelland

(b) Maslow

(c) Harry Harlow

(d) Solomon

(e) Corbit

57. Psychoanalytic theory of motivation was developed by:

(a) Sigmund Freud

(b) Maslow

(c) Harry Harlow

(d) McClelland

(e) None of the above

58. The goals which the person tries to escape are called:

(a) Positive goals

(b) Vectors

(c) Valences

(d) Negative goals

(e) None of the above

59. A person’s need for feeling competent and self-determining in dealing with his environment is called:

(a) Intrinsic Motivation

(b) Instinct

(c) Imprinting

(d) Coolidge Effect

(e) None of the above

60. When the motive is directed towards goals external to the person such as money or grade, it is called:

(a) Extrinsic Motivation

(b) Intrinsic Motivation

(c) Imprinting

(d) Instinct

(e) None of the above

61. Steers and Porter (1975) in their text entitled “Motivation and work behaviour” identi­fied:

(a) Two major components of motivation

(b) Four major components of motivation

(c) Five major components of motivation

(d) Three major components of motivation

(e) None of the above

362. The conditions which influence the arousal, direction and maintenance of behaviors relevant in work settings are called:

(a) Work Motivation

(b) Drive stimuli

(c) Substitute behaviour

(d) Consummator behaviour

(e) None of the above

63. Intrinsic motivation as currently conceived is championed by:

(a) Janis (1977)

(b) Soloman (1974)

(c) Deci (1975)

(d) Mann (1977)

(e) Corbit (1974)

64. Most of the research on intrinsic motivation has concentrated on the interaction between:

(a) Intrinsic and extrinsic rewards

(b) Instinct and imprinting

(c) Action specific energy and balance sheet grid

(d) Substitute behaviour and consummator behaviour

(e) None of the above

65. An individual’s affective orientation towards particular outcomes is called the:

(a) Vector of the outcome

(b) Approach gradient of the outcome

(c) Valence of the outcome

(d) Avoidance gradient of the outcome

(e) None of the above

66. Dipboye (1977) distinguished between the strong and weak version of:

(a) Achievement theory

(b) Two-factor theory

(c) Valence theory

(d) Consistency theory

 (e) None of the above

67. Motives are:

(a) Internal sources of behaviour

(b) External sources of behaviour

(c) Natural sources of behaviour

(d) Both subjective and objective sources of behaviour

(e) None of the above

68. Motives move a person from:

(a) Within

(b) Outside

(c) Beginning

(d) Birth

(e) Death

69. Literally, motivation means the process of inducing:

(a) Movement

(b) Excitement

(c) Tension

(d) Conflict

(e) None of the above

70. Motivation is defined as a state of the organism in which bodily energy is mobilised and selectively directed towards parts of the:

(a) Stimulus

(b) Response

(c) World

(d) Environment

(e) None of the above

71. “Mobilisation of bodily energy” is otherwise known as:

(a) Drive

(b) Need

(c) Motive

(d) Incentive

(e) None of the above

72. The selected part of environment refers to the end results of behaviour sequence which are known as:

(a) Aims

(b) Objectives

(c) Goals

(d) Destinations

(e) None of the above

73. Goal refers to:

(a) Directional aspects of behaviour

(b) End result of instrumental behaviour

(c) Destination after conscious activities

(d) Occasional halts

(e) None of the above

74. When a motive is aroused and the organism is driven to a goal, a condition is produced within the organism called:

(a) Conflict

(b) Tension

(c) Anxiety

(d) Jealousy

(e) None of the above

75. The tension increases when the goal is:

(a) Free

(b) Easy to achieve

(c) Obstructed

(d) Static

(e) None of the above

76. Those internal mechanisms of the body which, by controlling numerous highly complicated physiological processes, keep it in a state of equilibrium are known as:

(a) Homeostasis

(b) Nervous System

(c) Nutrition

(d) None of the above

77. Homeostasis is the overall term for equili­brium preserving tendencies with an orga­nism by which:

(a) Neurophysiological condition is main­tained

(b) Psychological condition is maintained

(c) Physiological condition is maintained

(d) Psychophysical condition is maintained

(e) None of the above

78. Curiosity comes under:

(a) Social Motives

(b) Personal motives

(c) Non-homeostatic motives

(d) Both (b) and (c)

(e) None of the above

79. Sex is a:

(a) Biological motive

(b) Physiological motive

(c) Both (a) and (b)

(d) Psychological motive

(e) None of the above

80. Maslow’s idea about the structure of needs is known as:

(a) Self-actualization theory of motivation

(b) Physiological theory of motivation

(c) Psychological theory of motivation

(d) Psychophysical theory of motivation

(e) None of the above

81. “Intrinsic motivation theory” was developed by:

(a) Halow (1950)

(b) Sigmund Freud (1902)

(c) Mark and Ervin (1970)

(d) Dollard (1939)

(e) Bandura (1973)

82. A person who is motivated displays:

(a) Unconscious Behaviour

(b) Conscious Behaviour

(c) Hapazard Behaviour

(d) Goal-directed Behaviour

(e) Erratic Behaviour

83. The process of maintaining the biochemical balance or equilibrium throughout human body is referred as:

(a) Osmosis

(b) Circulation

(c) Hoeostasis

(d) Nervous System

(e) Diffusion

84. Which one of the following is not a psy­chological motive?

(a) Need for achievement

(b) Need for affection

(c) Need for belonging

(d) Need for Oxygen

(e) None of the above

85. ‘The competition of two or more contra­dictory impulses, usually accompanied by emotional tension is called a/an:

(a) Conflict

(b) Anxiety

(c) Neurosis

(d) Psychosis

(e) Phobia

86. An object or thing which directs or stimu­lates behaviour:

(a) Instinct

(b) Incentive

(c) Need

(d) Motive

(e) Drive

87. A pituitary hormone associated with the secretion of milk is known as:

(a) Prolactin

(b) Adrenalin

(c) Estrogens

(d) Progesterone’s

(e) Insulin

88. A motive that is primarily learned rather than basing on biological needs is known as:

(a) Physical Motive

(b) Psychological Motive

(c) Neurophysiological Motive

(d) Psychological Motive

(e) None of these

89. During 1950s, psychologists began to be disenchanted with the drive reduction theory of motivation as an explanation of:

(a) All types of behaviour

(b) Only certain types of physiological behaivour

(c) Only certain types of psychological behaviour

(d) Both physiological and psychological behaviour

(e) Social behaviour

90. The hypothalamus plays an important role in the regulation of:

(a) Food intake

(b) Water intake

(c) Alcohol intake

(d) Both food and water intake

(e) None of the above

91. Lateral hypothalamus (LH) is otherwise known as:

(a) Stimulating center

(b) Circulatory Centre

(c) Feeding Centre

(d) Water center

(e) None of the above

92. Research evidences indicated that vent­romedial hypothalamus (VMH):

(a) Facilitates eating

(b) Expedites eating

(c) Both facilitates and

(d) Inhibits eating expedites eating

(e) None of the above

93. Electrical stimulation of ventromedial hypo­thalamus (VMH) cells:

(a) Inhibits eating

(b) Facilitates eating

(c) Expedites eating

(d) Both expedites and inhibits eating

(e) None of the above

94. Injections of glucose (which raise blood sugar level):

(a) Facilitate eating

(b) Expedite eating

(c) Both expedite and facilitate eating

(d) Inhibit eating

(e) None of the above

95. Injections of insulin (which lower blood sugar level):

(a) Increase food intake

(b) Decrease food intake

(c) Expedite food intake

(d) Facilitate food intake

(e) None of the above

96. Studies indicated that the hypothalamus contains cells (glucoreceptors) sensitive to the rate of which:

(a) Glucose passes through them

(b) Glucose stimulates them

(c) Glucose inhibits them

(d) Glucose both stimulates and inhibits them

(e) None of the above397. An empty stomach produces the periodic contractions of muscles in the stomach wall which we identify as:

(a) Stomach ache

(b) Stomach pain

(c) Stomach ailment

(d) Hunger Pangs

(e) None of these

98. Obesity is thought to stem from disturbances during the:

(a) Phallic stage of psychosexual develop­ment

(b) Oral and Anal stages of psychosexual development

(c) Genital stage of psychosexual develop­ment

(d) Latency period of psychosexual deve­lopment

(e) None of these

99. Dehydration of the osmoreceptors can be produced by depriving the organism of:

(a) Food

(b) Water

(c) Blood

(d) Sugar

(e) Alcohol

100. Water deficit in the body increases the concentration of:

(a) Pottasium

(b) Insulin

(c) Sugar

(d) Sodium

(e) Glucose

101. Realistic anxiety is otherwise known as:

(a) Objective anxiety

(b) Subjective anxiety

(c) Psychic anxiety

(d) Ego defenses

102. In “moral anxiety”, ego’s dependence upon:

(a) Superego is found

(b) Id is found

(c) Sex is found

(d) Unconscious is found

103. Neurotic anxiety is one in which there occurs emotional response to a threat to ego that the impulses may break through into:

(a) Consciousness

(b) Unconsciousness

(c) Subconsciousness

(d) Super ego

104. Sometimes the superego gives threats to punish the ego. This causes an emotional response called:

(a) Moral Anxiety

(b) Realistic Anxiety

(c) Objective Anxiety

(d) Neurotic Anxiety

105. Always we want to protect ego from the ensuring anxiety. For doing this, ego adopts some strategies which are called:

(a) Defense mechanisms

(b) Sex energy

(c) Instincts

(d) Dreams

106. Defense mechanisms help the person in protecting ego from open expression of id impulses and opposing:

(a) Superego directives

(b) Death Instinct

(c) Lie Instinct

(d) Unconscious mind1

107. Defense mechanisms operate at unconscious level. They occur without awareness of the individual. Hence they are:

(a) Self-explanatory

(b) Self-deceptive

(c) Self-expressive

(d) Self-dependent

108. A child scolded by his father may hit his younger sublings. This is an example of:

(a) Displacement

(b) Rationalization

(c) Regression

(d) Repression

109. “A young woman after fighting with her husband returned to her parent’s home only to allow her parents to “baby” her and fulfil her every wish like that of a child”. This is an illustration of:

(a) Repression

(b) Regression

(c) Fixation

(d) Reaction Formation

110. The last stage of psychosexual development is:

(a) Phallic Stage

(b) Genital Stage

(c) Oral Stage

(d) Anal Stage

111. Sigmund Freud has regarded the first three stages of psychosexual development i.e., the period of 5 or 6 years of life, to be decisive for the formation of:

(a) Intelligence

(b) Personality

(c) Emotion

(d) Ego

112. In the book “Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego”, Freud has explained the formation of:

(a) Personality

(b) Group

(c) Society

(d) Gang

113. ________ Memory is to hearing as ________ memory is to seeing.
a. echoic, eidetic

b. eidetic, echoic,
c. working, short-term
d. short-term, working

114. The cognitive school of psychology found it helpful to liken the brain to a(n):
a. cash machine
b. computer
c. orchestra
d. calculator

115. A person who has just eaten supper completes the word fragment _ o_k as fork (rather
than as book or look etc.). This is an example of:
a. conditioning
b. recognition
c. priming
d. relearning

116. Which of the following brain areas have been shown to be important for memory?
a. cerebellum
b. amygdala
c. hippocampus
d. all of the above

  1. Puni isn’t sure whether she read something in a magazine or in her psychology text book.
    Puni has a problem with:
    a. media literacy
    b. the misinformation effect
    c. source monitoring
    d. salience
  2. Anterograde amnesia is typically associated with damage to the:
    a. amygdala
    b. retina
    c. cerebellum
    d. hippocampus
  3. Which part of working memory controls how attention is directed?
    a. the central executive
    b. the mother board
    c. the mnemonic processor
    d. the director
  4. The tendency to think about and experience events according to “what might have
    been” is known as:
    a. anterograde amnesia
    b. counterfactual thinking
    c. salience
    d. heuristic processing
  5. Damage to the cerebellum is likely to interfere with:
    a. auditory processing
    b. explicit memory
    c. implicit memory
    d. emotional memories
  6. Research has shown that there is _________________ between the accuracy of a
    person’s memory and their confidence in the accuracy of that memory.
    a. virtually no correlation
    b. a strong positive correlation
    c. a strong negative correlation
    d. a curvilinear relationship
  7. The word fragment test is used to test a person’s ________ memory.
    a. extrinsic
    b. instrinsic
    c. explicit
    d. implicit
  8. After reading an article about a case of cheating on campus, students are likely to over-
    estimate the incidence of cheating on campus. This is an example of:
    a. iconic memory salience
    b. the availability heuristic
    c. counterfactual thinking
    d. functional fixedness
  9. In stage models of memory, information moves from:
    a. sensory to short-term to long-term memory
    b. sensory to long-term to working memory
    c. short-term to long-term to explicit memory
    d. sensory to eidetic to iconic memory
  10. The spacing effect suggests that when you study for a test you should:
    a. wait until the last minute then find a quiet place to study
    b. learn different material in different places
    c. spread your study time over a number of sessions
    d. always study in a spacious area
  11. Classical conditioning effects are an example of:
    a. eidetic memory
    b. primary memory
    c. retroactive interference
    d. implicit memory
  12. Magnus was locked in a room. The only way to escape was to force open a window
    and climb out. Magnus remained locked in the room because he never thought to use
    his keys to force the window. Magnus’ problem was:
    a. amnesia
    b. functional fixedness
    c. interference
    d. misinformation
  13. : In the context of memory, LTP stands for
    a. limited transfer potential
    b. lateral temporal parietal
    c. latent timing probability
    d. long term potentiation
  14. After a stroke, 22-year-old Malik can no longer remember his childhood friends or the vacations he took with his family. Malik is suffering from:
    a. retrograde amnesia
    b. anterograde amnesia
    c. functional fixedness
    d. dyslexia
  15. Our tendency to focus on information that is consistent with our beliefs and to ignore
    contradictory information is called:
    a. contradiction avoidance
    b. confirmation bias
    c. counterfactual thinking
    d. functional fixedness
  16. ________ Information is lost from sensory memory, and ________ information is lost from
    short-term memory.
    a. unpleasant, pleasant
    b. pleasant, unpleasant
    c. unattended, unrehearsed
    d. unrehearsed, unattended
  17. Recall involves ________ step(s), and recognition involves ________ step(s).
    a. one, one
    b. one, two
    c. two, two
    d. two, one
  18. Working memory is best thought of as:
    a. an alternative to long term memory
    b. a set of memory procedures
    c. a type of procedural memory
    d. an adjunct to sensory memory
  19. Sandra is convinced that her neighbor, Joe, is cruel to his dog. She notices every time
    Joe shouts at the dog or jerks its lead but she doesn’t seem to notice the times when Joe
    plays with the dog or gives it treats. This is an example of:
    a. misinformation
    b. anterograde amnesia
    c. proactive interference
    d. confirmation bias
  20. Ivy remembers watching the solar eclipse in amazing detail. She is certain she can
    remember exactly what she was wearing, who she was with, what music was playing on
    a nearby radio and even the breed of dog which ran past her just before the eclipse. This
    is an example of a(n):
    a. flashbulb memory
    b. eidetic image
    c. procedural memory
    d. semantic memory
  21. Research suggests that if you are sad when you study for a test you are likely
    to be better at remembering the material:
    a. when you are happy
    b. when you are drunk
    c. when you are sad
    d. when you are angry
  22. ________ Memory is to first-hand experience as ________ memory is to knowledge
    about the world.

    a. semantic, episodic
    b. episodic, semantic
    c. implicit, explicit
    d. explicit, implicit
  23. Heuristics are:
    a. the same as mnemonics
    b. a type of hormone
    c. information processing strategies
    d. none of the above
  24. When she studies for a Psych exam, Melodee always tries to think of ways in which the
    information she is trying to learn relates to her own life. She is hoping to benefit from:
    a. the self-reference effect
    b. the spacing effect
    c. overlearning
    d. enhanced interference
  1.                                       ________ Interference works backwards, and ________ interference works forwards.
    a. primary, regency
    b. regency, primacy
    c. proactive, retroactive
    d. retroactive, proactive