1.Who coined the term Bioinformatics and when?

a. Robert Ledley, 1978

b. David W Mount, 1977

c. Paulien Hogeweg, 1979

d. Dr Margaret Oakley Dayhoff, 1976

Correct Answer: c

2.GenBank, the Nucleic acid sequence database is maintained by

a. DNA database of Japan

b. European Molecular Biology Laboratory

c. National Centre for Biotechnology Information

d. Brookhaven laboratory

Correct Answer: c

3.Each record in a database is called

a. Query

b. Entry

c. File

d. Record

Correct Answer: b

4.All of the following are protein sequence databases except



c. PIR

d. PDB

Correct Answer: b

5.Which of the following is not a primary nucleic acid database?

a. GenBank




Correct Answer: d

6.Margaret Dayhoff developed the first protein sequence database called

a. Atlas of sequence and structure protein


c. Protein sequence  databank

d. UniPROT

Correct Answer: a

7.The structural classification of proteins is based primarily on their

a. Amino acid sequence

b. Evolutionary relationships

c. function

d. Secondary structure content and arrangement

Correct Answer: d

8.In the α helix the hydrogen bonds

a. are roughly parallel to the axis of the helix

b. are roughly perpendicular to the axis of the helix

c. occur only between some of the amino acids of the helix

d. occur only near the amino and carboxyl termini of the helix

Correct Answer: a

9.Which of the following is a RefSeq accession number corresponding to an mRNA?

a. NP_52280

b. AAB134506

c. NM_15392

d. J01536

Correct Answer: c

10.You have a favorite gene, and you want to determine in what tissues it is expressed. Which one of the following resources is likely the most direct route to this information?

a. Entrez

b. Pubmed

c. PCR

d. UniGene

Correct Answer: d

11.Which of the following databases is derived from mRNA information?


b. dbEST

c. PBD


Correct Answer: b

12.Which of the following databases can be used to access text information about human diseases?

a. PBD



d. EST

Correct Answer: c

13.What is the difference between RefSeq and GenBank?

a. RefSeq includes publicly available DNA sequences

submitted from individual laboratories and sequencing


b. GenBank provides nonredundant curated data

c. GenBank sequences are derived from RefSeq.

d. RefSeq sequences are derived from GenBank and provide

nonredundant curated data.

Correct Answer: d

14.Orthologs are defined as

a. Homologous sequences in the same species that arose

through gene duplication

b. Homologous sequences in the same species which have

similar and often redundant functions

c. Homologous sequences in different species that share an ancestral gene

d. Homologous sequences that share little amino acid identity but share great structural similarity

Correct Answer: c

15.A single piece of information in a database is called

a. Dataset

b. Field

c. File

d. Record

Correct Answer: b

16.Literature databases include

a. Pubmed and PDB




Correct Answer: c

17.Which of the following is false about the ‘loop’ structure in proteins?

a. They connect helices and sheets

b. They are more flexible and can adopt multiple conformations

c. They are more tolerant of mutations

d. They are never the components of active sites

Correct Answer: d

18.Approximately how large is the human genome?

a. 3000Mb

b. 3Mb

c. 300Mb

d. 30,000Mb

Correct Answer: a

19.You have a reasonably short, typical, double-stranded DNA sequence.Basically, how many proteins can it potentially encode?

a. 6

b. 1

c. 2

d. 3

Correct Answer: a

20.Approximately what percentage of the human genome consists of repetitive elements of various kinds?

a. 0.5

b. 0.05

c. 0.85

d. 0.25

Correct Answer: a

21.What percentage of the human genome is devoted to the protein-coding regions?

a. 1-5%

b. 5-10%

c. 10-20%

d. 20-30%

Correct Answer: a

22.Bioinformatics is also being regarded as part of the

a. Molecular biology

b. Computational biology

c. Computational biotechnology

d. Computer Knowledge

Correct Answer: b

23.The best estimate for the number of human genes is

a. 100000

b. 1000000

c. 50000

d. 30000

Correct Answer: a

24.The Protein Data Bank (PDB)

a. Contains approximately as many structures as there are

protein sequences in SwissProt/TrEMBL

b. Is operated jointly by the NCBI and EBI

c. Includes data on proteins, DNA–protein complexes as well

as carbohydrates

d. Functions primarily as the major worldwide repository of

macromolecular secondary structures

Correct Answer: c

25.Analyzing or comparing entire genome of species is called

a. Pharmacogenomics

b. Genomics

c. Bioinformatics

d. Proteomics

Correct Answer: b

26.Which of the following is untrue about SCOP?

a. It is a database for comparing and classifying

protein structures

b. It is constructed almost entirely based on manual examination

of protein structures

c. The proteins are grouped into hierarchies of classes,

folds, superfamilies, and families

d. The SCOP families consist of proteins having low sequence identity

Correct Answer: d

27.SCOP is _______ based on manual comparison of structures by human experts with no quantitative criteria to group proteins

a. Almost entirely

b. Not

c. Partially

d. never

Correct Answer: a

28.In CATH, Structural domain separation is carried by

a. a combined effort of a human expert and compute r programs

b. Manual comparison only

c. computer programs only

d. human expertise only

Correct Answer: a

29.The term “whole-genome shotgun sequencing” refers to

a. A strategy to sequence an entire genome by breaking up

DNA, cloning it into libraries, sequencing small fragments,

then reassembling the fragments into a complete map

b. A strategy to sequence an entire genome by breaking up

DNA, cloning it into libraries, hybridizing small fragments,

then reassembling the fragments into a complete map

c. A strategy to sequence an entire genome by breaking up DNA and sequencing using oligonucleotide primers that span the genomic DNA

d. ktups, substitution matrix

Correct Answer: a

30.The initiation of FASTA format has ____ symbol

a. >

b. <

c. /

d. *

Correct Answer: a

31.______ the smallest amino acid, has a hydrogen atom as the R group

a. Threonine

b. Glycine

c. Valine

d. Proline

Correct Answer: b

32.Step wise method for solving problems in computer science is called

a. Algorithm

b. Flowchart

c. Sequential design

d. Procedure

Correct Answer: a

33.PRINTS are software used for

a. Detection of gene from genome sequence

b. dentification of functional domain/motifs of protein

c. Prediction of function of a new gene

d. Detecton of tRNAs gene

Correct Answer: b

34.Human genome contains about

a. 3 billion base pairs

b. 2 billion base pairs

c. 5 billion base pairs

d. 4 billion base pairs

Correct Answer: a

35.Which of the following is a protein structure database

a. SwissProt

b. Genbank

c. PDB


Correct Answer: c

36.The identification of drugs through genomic study is called

a. Bioinformatics

b. Genomics

c. Biochemistry

d. Pharmacogenomics

Correct Answer: d

37.SWISS PROT is related to

a. Sequence data

b. portable data

c. swiss bank

d. Sequence data bank

Correct Answer: d

38.One centiMorgan is defined as ____ percentage of the total recombination events

a. 0.01

b. 0.1

c. One

d. Ten

Correct Answer: c

39.In general, if you compare the size of a pattern (also called a motif or fingerprint) and a domain

a. They are about the same size

b. The pattern is larger

c. The comparison always depends on the particular proteins

in question

d. The pattern is smaller

Correct Answer: d

40.In comparing two homologous but distantly related proteins

a. They tend to share more percent amino acid identity in

common than three-dimensional structure features

b. They tend to share three-dimensional structure features and percent amino acid identity to a comparable extent

c. It is not reasonable to generalize about the extent to which

they share three-dimensional structure features and percent

amino acid identity

d. They tend to share more three-dimensional structure features

in common than percent amino acid identity

Correct Answer: d

41.The CATH database offers a hierarchical classification of protein structures. The first three levels, class (C), architecture (A), and topology (T), all describe

a. Protein secondary structure (e.g., secondary structure composition, packing, shape, orientation, and connectivity)

b. Protein domain structure

c. Protein superfamilies grouped according to homologous


d. Protein tertiary structure (e.g., tertiary structure composition,

packing, shape, orientation, and connectivity)

Correct Answer: d

42.What is the source of protein structures in SCOP and CATH?

a. UniPROT

b. Ensembl

c. InterPro

d. Protein Data Bank

Correct Answer: d

43.In an α helix, the R groups on the amino acid residues

a. are found on the outside of the helix spiral

b. alternate between the outside and the inside of the helix

c. cause only right-handed helices to form

d. stack within the interior of the helix

Correct Answer: a

44.The process of introduction of foreign DNA into an animal cell is called

a. Transversion

b. Conversion

c. Inversion

d. Transfection

Correct Answer: d

45.A _______ is defined in SCOP as a collection of superfamilies

a. Primary structure

b. Secondary structure

c. mutated protein

d. Protein Fold

Correct Answer: d

46.Which of the following is a sequence alignment tool?

a. PIR




Correct Answer: b

47.The stages of mRNA processing include all of the following except

a. Splicing

b. Export

c. Methylation

d. Polyadenylation

Correct Answer: c

48.Genbank is maintained by

a. SIB

b. NIG


d. EBI

Correct Answer: c

49.which alignment is useful to detect for highly conserved regions?

a. Multiple

b. Pairwise

c. Local

d. Global

Correct Answer: c

50.when you are comparing two or more than two sequences of same or different organisms,What is the  type of alignment?

a. Global

b. Pairwise

c. Multiple

d. Local

Correct Answer: c