1) Rousseau was born in:

a. June 28,1712, Geneva,Switzerland

b. September 12,1970, Italy

c. April 19, 1820, Japan

d. October 17, 1770, France


2) Philosopher Rousseau belongs to which era:

a. 18th century philosophy

b. 17th century philosophy

c. 19th century philosophy

d. 14th century philosophy


3) Philosopher Rousseau belongs to which region:

a. Western philosophy

b. Greek philosophy

c. English philosophy

d. British philosophy


4) According to Rousseau, what is legitimate political authority based on?

a. Slavery

b. A social contract

c. Nature

d. Force


5) Which of the following practices does Rousseau favor?

a. Hereditary succession of power

b. The abolition of private property

c. Capital punishment

d. Public ballots


6) Which of the following does Rousseau NOT support under any circumstances?

a. Capital punishment

b. Slavery

c. Dictatorship

d. Monarchy


7) Which of the following “isms” is Rousseau closest to?

a. Totalitarianism

b. Libertarianism

c. Isomerism

d. Communitarianism


8) Who is called the “Intellectual Father of French Revolution?

a. J.J Rousseau

b. Montesquieu

c. Napoleon

d. None of these


9) Rousseau’s 800-page novel of sentiment, Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse, was published in

a. 1761

b. 1768

c. 1758

d. None of these


10) “A thinking man is depraved animal.” This view of man was propounded by:

a. Hobbes

b. Herder

c. Vico

d. Rousseau


11) Who among the following thinkers made a distinction between Real

Will and Actual Will?

a. Rousseau

b. Green

c. Bosanquet

d. Kant


12) Which of the following thought that the power of the people, that is,

the general will, was the ultimate voice of authority and liberty?

a. Aristotle

b. Mill

c. Hume

d. Rousseau


13)The theory of social justice advanced by Rousseau and Hobbes,

among others, is called __________.

a. utilitarianism

b. universalism

c. legal premise theory

d. social contract theory


14) Rousseau’s famous line: ‘Man was born free; and everywhere he is in

chains’ came from which of his works?

a. The Discourse of the Arts and Sciences

b. The Confessions

c. The Social Contract

d. Emile


15)”The Social Contract”was published in

a. 1761

b. 1871

c. 1982

d. 1567


16) GENERAL WILL as concept was introduced by: (CSS-2007)

a. Rousseau

b. Hobbes

c. Locke

d. None of these


17) Jean-Jacques Rousseau died at the age of:

a. 68 years

b. 66 years

c. 60 years


18) Jean-Jacques Rousseau died in:

a. London, Britain

b. Geneva, Switzerland

c. Ermenonville, France

d. None of these78 years


19) School Social contract theory is related with:

a. Thomas Hobbes

b. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

c. Bob Woodward

d. None of these


20) When did Rousseau die?

a. 1804

b. 1777

c. 1778

d. 1789

1 Who is called the father of Realism?

A) Aristotle

B) Plato

C) Socrates

D) Edward Throndike


2 Realism is a philosophical approach that argues that ultimate reality is the

world of :

A) Ideas

B) Experiences

C) Observations

D) Physical Objects


3 The philosopher who is called the father of Idealism?

A) Aristotle

B) Plato

C) Socrates

D) Edward Throndike


4 Idealism is a philosophical approach that argues that________ are the only

true reality, and the only thing worth knowing.

A) Ideas

B) Experiences

C) Observations

D) Physical experiences


5 When the term Idealism was used for the first time?

A) 1741

B) 1742

C) 1743

D) 1744


6 Realists Sought To:

A) Provide account of soldier’s in the civil war

B) Symbolically join disillusioned generations

C) Portray life as it is

D) Explore psychology


7 Realism emphasized:

A) The ordinary, Life as it is, Social issues

B) Accuracy, the ordinary, irony

C) Symbolism, life as it is, pragmatism

Social issues, the ordinary, nature


8 What did Naturalist writers NOT believe?

A) Being instinctive and crude

B) We are subject to the laws of the universe

C) Using iron and foreshadows

D) Nature is a source of comfort and inspiration


9 Which is NOT an extension of Realism?

A) Naturalism

B) Writing as an art of God and Nature

C) Writing as an art of common people

D) Regionalism


10 Which story is the form of the Realism movement?

A) A rose for Emily

B) The Glass Castle

C) In Author Country

D) Narrative of the Life Frederick Douglass


11 The idealist claimed that reality exist in the:

A) Natural world

B) In the spirit of man

C) Self discipline

D) Empirically tested truth


12 Who emphasized realization 0f “Truth , Beauty and Goodness” as the aims of


A) Pragmatists

B) Idealists

C) Realists

D) Naturalists


13 The idealist give much importance on :

A) Self realization

B) Self expression

C) Self concept



14 How is ‘the national interest’ defined/determined by realists?

A) A state defines national interest depending on its people’s priorities.

B) States prioritize national interests insofar as they guarantee the state’s survival.

C) Realists see national interest as homologous to regional interests. D) National interest is

determined by its degree of economic profitability.


15 Idealism recognizes ideas , feeling and ideas more important than:

A) Education

B) Human soul

C) Material objects

D) Spiritual objects


16 What is the goal of education according to Idealism?

A) Realization of moral values

B) Satisfaction of human wants

C) Perfect adaptation to environment

D) Cultivation of dynamic


17 Which among the following does not fit into the scheme of educational goals

of the Idealists?

A) Skills

B) Care of body

C) Moral values

Self expression


18 Realists are:

A) Advocates of aggressive foreign policy and war

B) Supporters of war when it is necessary to further a rational understanding of the national


D) C) Concerned with economic development only Afraid terrorism will make the world a less secure place


19 Religious Education is strongly advocated by:

A) Realists B) Idealists

C) Pragmatists

D) Existentialists


20 “The child is an integrant part of the ultimate universe” is the view point of:

A) Realism

B) Pragmatism

C) Existentialism

D) Idealism


21 What is the realist image of the state?

A) The state is the most important actor of international politics and sovereignty is its

distinguishing trait.

B) The state will always seek to ensure its survival in a perilous international environment.

C) The state behaves morally and in accordance to what its population’s values are.

D) The state is the most important actor of international politics, sovereignty is its distinguishing trait, and the state will always seek to ensure its survival in a perilous international environment.


22 How does realism understand the concept of power?

A) Power is based on economic strength.

B) Power is a relational concept.

C) Power is a relative concept.

D) Power is a relational concept and power is a relative concept.


23 Who gave the concept of Idealism for the first time?

A) George Berkeley

B) Plato

C) Aristotle

D) Socrates


24 According to which school of philosophy the education, exaltation

Of individual’s personality is a function of education?

A) Realism

B) Pragmatism

C) Naturalism

D) Idealism


25 Which of the following is said about the Idealists?

A) They like roses

B) They are content with briars

C) They want roses and briars both

D) They are satisfied neither with

1 Karl Marx was born in:

A) 1816

B) 1817

C) 1818

D) 1819


2 Karl Marx was a_________ philosopher.

A) Roman

B) German

C) French

D) British


3 He married Jenny von Westphalen in____

A) 1842

B) 1843

C) 1844

D) 1845


4 Karl Marx was born in which city ?

A) Trier

B) Berlin

C) Hamburg

D) Munich


5 Karl Marx died in_______

A) 1881

B) 1882

C) 1883

D) 1884


6 Why does Marx say that capitalists have more power than workers in the

capitalist mode of production?

A) The capitalists control the means of production.

B) The structures of society favor the capitalists.

C) Workers are only selling labor in the abstract.

D) All of the above


7 What does Marx say is the effect of the division of labor on the worker?

A) Loss of imagination and character

B) Increased ambition

C) More leisure time

D) Fairer working conditions


8 The amount of labor put into a commodity is a measure of its:

A) Use-value

B) Value

C) Quantity-value

D) Exploitation-value


9 Which of the following models reflects circulation in the modern capitalist


A) C-M-C

B) C-C-C C) M-C-M

D) M-C-C


10 What is the value of labor-power?

A) The joy it brings to the individual.

B) The amount of labor required to provide subsistence for the worker.

C) The value of the commodities the worker produces.

D) The amount of utility each laborer adds to society.


11 According to Marx, what is one of the simple elements of the labor process?

A) The work itself

B) The object onto which the work is performed

C) The instruments of the work

D) All of the above


12 According to Marx, what resolves the tension between workers and capitalists?

A) Force

B) Compromise

C) Divine intervention

D) All of the above


13 During which century was Capital published?

A) 19th century

B) 18th century

C) 17th century

D) 20th century


14 Who published the last two volumes of Capital after Marx’s death?

A) Vladimir Lenin

B) Friedrich Engels

C) Joseph Stalin

D) John Stuart Mill


15 Which of the following is a component of the “means of production”?

A) Methods of working

B) Applied knowledge

C) The instruments of production

D) All of the above


16 The “mode of production” consists of each of the following EXCEPT

A) Inevitable domination by capitalists

B) The relations of production

C) The means of production

D) None of the above


17 Whose interests does the modern state serve?

A) The workers’ interests

B) The Church’s interests

C) The aristocracy’s interests

D) The capitalists’ interests


18 What country did Marx study in preparation for Capital?

A) Germany

B) United States

C) England

D) France


19 In modern society, who owns the means of production?

A) The military

B) The Church

C) The capitalists

D) The workers


20 What kind of value does a forest have?

A) Value

B) Use-value

C) Exchange-value

D) All of the above


21 What common element do commodities with an exchange relation have?

A) Demand curve

B) Labor input

C) Social utility

D) Personal usefulness


22 What does Marx mean by surplus value?

A) The component of a commodity’s value that exceeds the value of its inputs

B) The value of tax-exempt commodities

C) The wages a worker receives in a capitalist economy

D) The social utility that comes from consuming the commodity


23 In the C-M-C circulation, what is the function of money?

A) A means of exploiting workers

B) A constantly increasing end in itself

C) A medium of exchange

D) All of the above


24 Which of the following thinkers had the greatest impact on Marx?

A) Hegel

B) Burke

C) Aristotle

D) Rawls


25 Which writer had concerns similar to Marx’s about the impact of the division

of labor on human character?

A) Aristotle

B) G.W.F. Hegel

C) Edmund Burke

D) Adam Smith

Who is the father of logical positivism ?

a) Alfred Jules Ayer

b) Rudolf Carnapp

c) Ludwing Wittgenstein

d) Thomas Kuhn


Logical positivism develops and claims we should use a criterion

of …..???

a) Truth

b) Meaning

c) Knowledge

d) Experience


Logical positivism is also called …….?

a) Empirism positivism

b) Neo-positivism

c) Both a & b

d) Only a


The school of philosophy that combines empiricism _ the idea that observational evidence is indispensable for knowledge of the word_ with a version of rationalism is called ….????

a) Logical positivism

b) Empirism positivism

c) Noe positivism

d) All


Logical positivism grew from the discussions of a group called ………… which gathered at the café central before world war1 .

a) First vienna circle

b) Second Vienna circle

c) Third Vienna circle

d) 4th Vienna circle


In 1929 a pamphlet written by …………….. and ………….summarized the doctrines of the Vienna Circle at that time ???

a) Neurath Hahn and Rudolf Carnap

b) Ludwing Wittegnstein and Rudulf Carnapp

c) A.J.Ayer and Thomas Kuhn

d) A.J.Ayer and Neurath Hahn


Which philosopher’s work was important to the development of logical positivism , although he claimed that many logical positivists misunderstood his work ???

a) Rudolf Carnapp

b) Ludwing wittgensian

c) A.J.Ayer

d) Thomas Kuhn


Untill the 1950s, Logical positivism was the leading school in

the ……….of science ????

a) Psychology

b) Metaphysics

c) Philosophy

d) All


In 1922 who is the leader of the Vienna circle ??

a) A.J.Ayer

b) Hans Hahn

c) Thomas Kuhn

d) Rudolf Carnapp.


In which century a philosophical movement arose in Vienna and

characterized by the view that scientific knowledge is the only kind

of factual knowledge ???

a) 1919s

b) 1920s

c) 1921s

d) 1922s


………….. rejected Metaphysics as meaningless.?

a) Logical positivists

b) Rationalists

c) Idealists

d) Spiritualists


Wittgensian says that language is a ….?

a) Statement

b) Picture of reality

c) Judgement

d) Concept


A logical sentence is called ……..?

a) Proposition

b) Preposition

c) Empirical

d) Rational


The founder of positivism is ??

a) Saint simon

b) C.S Pierce

c) Aguste Comte

d) Francis Bacon


Logic is the science of correct ……??

a) J.S Mill

b) Aristotle

c) Socrates

d) Creighton


According to …………… proposition must be verified to be


a) Logical positivist

b) Modernism

c) Atomism

d) None of these


According to …….., there are only two sources of knowledge:

logical reasoning and empirical experience.

a) Logical positivism

b) Modernism

c) Atomism

d) None of these


The fundamental thesis of ………….. Consists in denying the possibility of synthetic a priori knowledge

a) Logical positivism

b) Modernist

c) Atomist

d) None of these


According to ————– the meaning of a statement is its method of verification ;

a) Logical positivist

b) Modernist

c) Atomist

d) None of these


———-is the author of The Logical Syntaxe of Language ,

a) Russel

b) Ayer

c) Carnap

d) Husserl


————— statement are a priori and their truth is based on

the rules of language .

a) Analytic

b) Synthetic

c) Practical

d) None of these


————– is the author of Language , truth and logic ?

a) WV Quine

b) Wittgensein

c) A J Ayer

d) Tarski


The philosophical position of the Vienna Circle was Called —

——- , ???

a) Phenomenology

b) Logical Empiricism

c) Existentialism

d) Hermeneutics


In Tractatus,———states that a proposition describes reality.

a) Husserl

b) Wittgenstein

c) Carnap

d) Russel


Vienna Circle was chaired by ———-?

a) Schlick

b) Carnap

c) Wittgenstein

d) Husserl


Vienna Circle was chaired by ———-?

a) Schlick

b) Carnap

c) Wittgenstein

d) Husserl

  1. One of the most common forms of post-positivism is a philosophy called :



(c)critical realism



  1. A post-positivist believes that there is a reality independent of our ______.






  1. Post-post-positivist critical realists believes that :

(a)some theories are revisable

(b)all theories are revisable

(c)some theories are correct

(d)all theories are correct


  1. Most post-positivists are :






  1. Post-positivists reject which idea?

(a)thinking should be rational

(b)we are responsible for or deeds

(c)individuals can see the world as it really is

(d)there is no fate


  1. Other name of post-positivism is :






  1. According to Morris, post positivism is also known as :



(c)hypothetical approach

(d)methodological pluralism


  1. The post-positivist paradigm evolved from the :

(a)naturalism(b)modern paradigm

(c)positive paradigm



  1. Post-positivism name was used by :

(a)Karl Marx



(d)DC Phillips


10.Post-positivism is what of positivism ?






11.Post-positivists believe which method to be valid approach ?

(a)Qualitative approach

(b)Quantitative approach


(d)none approach is valid


12.Post-positivism generally retain the idea of :


(c)fake ideas

(d)objective truth


13.Post-positivist approach believes that there is social

reality out there and has

(a)enough stability

(b)patterning to be known

(c)both a and b



14.According to post-positivism social reality is

conceived as :






15.In international relations theory, post-positivism

refers to theories of

(a)internal relations

(b)international relations

(c)social relations



16.Post-positivist approach assumes that social reality is :



(c)both a and b

(d)always wrong


17.Post-positivist theories don’t attempt to be :






18.Post-positivists ideas highlight :

(a)how power is exercised

(b)how power is experienced

(c)both a and b



19.Realsim and Liberalism are theories of :





20.Post-positivists claims that knowledge can be

objective without need for :



(c)absolute certainty



21.Post-positivists pursue objectivity by recognizing possible effects of :




(d)values and affairs


  1. According to post-positivism, human knowledge is based upon :

(a)priori assessments


(c)both a and b

(d)human conjectures


23.Post-positivists say that reality can be known only :



(c)both a and b



24.Post-positivists take the position that bias is undesirable but :


(b)don’t needed in philosophy

(c)waste of time

(d)slightly needed


  1. According to Post-positivists, which thing influence what is observed ?


(b)background knowledge

(c)values of researcher

(d)all of these

Q No.1: What are the basic sources of knowledge in epistemology?

(A) Perception

(B) Memory

(C) Consciousness

(D) All of these


Q No.2: In epistemology, …… is the view that knowledge of (or justified belief about) something is impossible.

(A) Skepticism

(B) Inspiration

(C) Rationalism

(D) Empiricism


Q No.3: The view that regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge is called:

(A) Empiricism

(B) Rationalism

(C) Intuition

(D) Traditionalism


Q No. 4: The view that all concepts originate in experience is called …..

(A) Revelation

(B) Rationalism

(C) Transactionalism

(D) Empiricism


Q No.5: Which concept regards human mind as a free state?

(A) Empiricism

(B) Rationalism

(C) Imagination

(D) Inspiration


Q No.6: The word empiricism means:

(A) Belief

(B) Tradition

(C) Reason

(D) Experience


Q No.7 : Concepts are said to be …….. if they can be applied independently of experience

(A) Priori

(B) Posteriori

(C) Superior

(D) Right


Q No. 8 According to empiricism all concepts are


(B) Posteriori

(C) Priori

(D) Wrong


Q No.9: Ability to understand something instinctively, without the need for conscious reasoning

(A) Reasoning

(B) Intuition

(C) Experience

(D) Senses


Q No.10: Rationalist theory of concepts asserts that some concepts are .…….

(A) Posteriori

(B) Priori

(C) Innate

(D) Both b and c


Q No. 11: ……… Holds the position that reason, rather than feeling, custom, or authority, is the ultimate court of appeal in judging good and bad, right and wrong:

(A) Inspiration

(B) Traditionalism

(C) Rationalism


(D) Empiricism


Q No.12: Another word for rationalism is

(A) Apriorism

(B) Intellectualism

(C) Both a and b

(D) None of these


Q No.13: The power of obtaining knowledge that cannot be acquired either by inference or observation, by reason or experience:

(A) Intuition

(B) Revelation

(C) Rationalism

(D) Empiricism


Q No.14: Knowledge of necessary truths and of moral principles is sometimes explained in:

(A) Imagination

(B) Intuition

(C) Empiricism

(D) Rationalism


Q No.15: What is the process of reasoning from what we think is true to what

else is true?

(A) Empiricism

(B) Rationalism

(C) Intuition

(D) Inference


Q No.16: Inferences are commonly drawn by

(A) Deduction

(B) Induction

(C) Probability

(D) All of these


Q No.17: Self-evidence may be taken as a mark of :

(A) Intuition

(B) Traditionalism

(C) Empiricism

(D) Rationalism


Q No. 18: Which one is based on information received from people, books, a

supreme being?

(A) Deduction

(B) Authoritative knowledge

(C) Induction

(D) Probability


Q No.19: For Socrates, the soul is harmed by lack of _____.

(A) Knowledge

(B) Wealth

(C) Community

(D) courage


Q No.20: What is knowledge based on a subject’s perception or experience?

(A) Objective truth

(B) Subjective truth

(C) Experimental truth

(D) Religious truth


Q No. 21: What is knowledge of things as they really exist?

(A) Experimental truth

(B) Subjective truth

(C) Religious truth

(D) Objective truth


Q No.22 Doubting whether knowledge is possible is called:

(A) Skepticism

(B) Causality

(C) Rationalism

(D) Fallibilism


Q No.23: Who wrote that all knowledge begins with experience, but it does not

all come from experience?

(A) Plato

(B) Descartes

(C) Kant

(D) Hume


Q No.24: . What is one thing skeptics are sure of?


(B) Their own existence

(C) Reason

(D) Sense Experience

1: What was Nietzsche’s middle name?


  1. Adolf
  2. Wolfgang


2: Where was Nietzsche born?

  1. Austria
  2. Hungary
  3. Germany


3: At what age did Nietzsche die?

  1. 59
  2. 55
  3. 57


4: What is the most significant work of Nietzsche?

  1. Human, All Too Human
  2. Thus Spoke Zarathustra
  3. The Gay Science


5: Who was Elisabeth Forester-Nietzsche?

  1. Friedrich Nietzsche’s mother
  2. Friedrich Nietzsche’s sister
  3. Friedrich Nietzsche’s wife


6: How many times did Nietzsche propose to Lou Salomé?



  1. 5


7: How did Nietzsche referred to Kant?

  1. As a moral fanatic

b.As a boring scientist

c.As a poor qualified man


8: When was The Gay Science (Die fröhliche Wissenschaft) published?





9: What is the title of Nietzsche’s essay where he disputes Wagner’s views?

  1. Nietzsche versus Wagner

b.Nietzsche contra Wagner

  1. Nietzsche against Wagner


10: What was Nietzsche’s last book?

  1. Twilight of the Idols

b.The Antichrist

c.Ecce Homo


11: How said: God is dead?

a.C S Pierce

  1. Heidegger
  2. Nietzsche


12: In which book did Nietzsche declare that “God is dead”?

a.The Modern Tragedy

  1. The Myth of Sysphus
  2. Thus Spake Zarathustra

13: His father died when Nietzsche was year old?





14: Nietzsche was died due to?



  1. Nervous break down


  1. Nietzsche was inspired by?
  2. Wilhelm


  1. Aristotle


16: why Nietzsche was expelled from university?

a.Due to mental issues

  1. Due to Family issues
  2. Due to Challenge the God


  1. Nietzsche claims that we currently stand in need of a critique of:
  2. Political power
  3. Religious Dogma
  4. Moral value


  1. Nietzsche asserts that the concept of “good” was originally derived from the concept of:
  2. Noble
  3. Gentle



19: According to Nietzsche, the original meanings of “good” and

“bad” have

been replaced by a:

a.Morality of Virtue

  1. Morality of egoism
  2. Slave Morality


  1. According to Nietzsche, responsibility requires that we be:
  2. capable of acting from duty
  3. Entitled to make promises.
  4. entitled to the respect of others.


21: In Nietzsche’s view, the idea of punishing someone proportionally to their crimes derives from the relationship of:

a.creditor and debtor.

  1. master and slave
  2. parent and child.


22: Ultimately, Nietzsche claims, asceticism represents a will to:



  1. Being


23: Which of the following is not one of the slogans of the ascetic

ideal that Nietzsche mentions?


  1. Humality
  2. Reunciation


24: According to Nietzsche, the act of punishment is __________,

and the meaning of punishment is __________.

a.enduring; fluid.

  1. fluid fluid
  2. Fluid, enduring


25: “What does not kill you male you stronger” who said this?


b, Aristotle

d. Nietzsche